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SPARTACUS – publishable deliverables and results

The SPARTACUS project, funded by the EU under the BATTERY 2030+ initiative, comprises a number of work packages. The publicly available deliverables to specific tasks are provided here.

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Sensor specifications

The objective of deliverable 1.1 is to provide the sensor specifications for the different sensor types. In a first step a cell was selected that fulfilled all the partners’ requirements for their respective task and work package. From there the available space was distributed over the different sensors. A sketch with the cell architecture was created with views on each cell side and one cross section view to illustrate the distribution of sensors among the cell. In a next step each sensor was included into a specification list with all at this project stage available information. Roughly estimations about the energy consumption of the sensor system and its electronics were calculated. In a next step of the project it is essential that a measurement rate for the sensor system will be defined.

Specifications for data pre-processing

This document describes the specifications regarding the pre-processing of all data generated by the sensor devices. Types of sensor output data are defined as well as data sampling and communication to the cell and battery management system. In section 3 of the document, the sensor structure of the pre-processing unit is described with a data flowchart. In the following, each sensor and its measurement principle is roughly described. The number of sensors, the expected measurement range and the data protocol is specified and appended.

CMS/BMS specifications

The purpose of this document is to provide the specifications for the CMS, battery modules and BMS as well as the interfaces to the other key elements which are pre-processing (PP) and ORP-EIS. This document is organized in three main chapters, each dedicated to a specific topic:

  • Chapter 3 (CMS specifications): provides the specifications of the CMS, it also ensures that the integration with T1.2 (PP) is clearly defined.
  • Chapter 4 (Module specifications): provides the specifications on how CMSs, cells, PP and ORP-EIS into modules.
  • Chapter 5 (BMS specifications): provides the details on the BMS, in particular, how the BMS is interfaced to the module.

This document ensures that all the elements above can be integrated as planned.

Tests definition

In this document the test specifications are defined in order to test all the activity carried out in the project. The sensors developed in WP2 will be installed on the cell in WP3. The models developed in WP4 will be tested in order to manage the cell to minimize the aging. The electronic unit designed in WP5 will be used in order to test the aging of the cell. In this sense, this document aims to define the test specifications for long aging tests. This document is divided into three main sections:

  • Test bench specifications: in this section the specification related to the set up are defined. Thus, the cell testing device, sensor information sharing, model execution and its input/outputs and the variables to save are defined, for a posterior study.
  • Test specifications: in this section the aging tests are specified. Special attention is on fast charge, where the performance on fast charge (see chapter 3.2) is intended to improve while minimizing the aging. Fast charge will be studied at low and at high temperatures as well.
  • Busive tests: the goal of this section is to define the abusive test and to analyse the sensor – model behaviour to analyse how this undesired situation is managed to minimize the consequences.

LCA Methodological Framework

The Spatially resolved acoustic, mechanical, and ultrasonic sensing for smart batteries (SPARTACUS) project targets an affordable sensor solution to detect batteries’ degradation and failure mechanisms before performance losses. Li-ion batteries (LIB) are conventionally managed by centralized battery management systems, which estimates the battery’s safety, performance, and cycle life by quantifying the State-of-Health. Currently, these parameters are calculated based on measurements of voltage, current (Coulomb counting), and temperature and do not consider physicochemical aging models. The project SPARTACUS aims to change this by implementing a dedicated model on a cell level fed by an array of integrated acoustic-mechanical and thermal sensors and combined with advanced impedance spectroscopy. The provision of such smart battery cells with sensor solutions will monitor temperature, materials structural changes, and electrochemical processes to support the detection of degradation and failure mechanisms during operation, intentionally before a loss of performance. The objectives of the SPARTACUS project are the following:

  • Development of new sensors design for smart batteries.
  • Integration of the sensors according to industrial constraints.
  • Data acquisition and data pre-processing for BMS integration.
  • Modeling of failure mechanisms and correlation with battery states.
  • Development of advanced BMS and standardization procedures.
  • Economic and environmental assessment.

This report is part of Work Package (WP) 1 (“Specifications”), Task 1.5. This document presents the methodological framework to assess the environmental impacts and the Levelized Cost of Energy Storage (LCOES) of smart batteries and second life applications that will be performed in WP 6, in Tasks 6.1 and 6.3. Together, these tasks address the project’s objective 6, which targets the assessment of sensitized batteries’ economic and environmental effectiveness. These Tasks will evaluate if the increased cost of including sensors in LIB and their manufacturing’s environmental impacts will be compensated by LIB’s increased usability and qualification for a second-life use.

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    Project Coordinator

    Gerhard Domann Fraunhofer ISC ————————————————–

    Dissemination Manager

    Marie-Luise Righi Fraunhofer ISC